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Brian’s Notes:

  1. There is the possibility of two Thomas Allen’s. One referenced as Captain Thomas Allen, and the second otherwise documented as a farmer having lived in St Mary’s Island, MD.
  2. Undeterminable as to which of the Thomas Allen’s did the three sons belong.
  3. William was not the eldest (Thomas was) BUT William was not one of the children held for ransom by the Patuxent Tribe.
  4. William resurfaces in 1656 to settle the estate of his father along with elder brother Thomas (Robert is assumed deceased)
  5. Why did eight years pass to settle Thomas Sr’s estate when there wasn’t enough in 1648 to reclaim the two boys from the Patuxent Tribe? (Possbly a clue that there were two Thomas’ but not necessarily)
  6. No record in St Mary’s Island pertaining to any of the three sons except for the 1656 estate sale.
  7. Presuming for a moment that William Allen moved to New Jersey (New Holland) he may have been pressed to change his name. The Dutch were at war with the British and Allen would have been an indicator that he was British; Allender however sounds Dutch). There is a famous William Allen (however not the same one from St Mary’s Island) that is historically significant to the Delaware bay area (Philadelphia and eastward to New Jersey).

History of Thomas Allen, passenger on the Arc (and the Dove) landed at St Mary’s Island, MD in 1633.


pg 124

Of course, humanity triumphed on occasion. It did for the sons of Thomas Allen of St Michael, Maryland. Allen was among the first servants recruited for Maryland in the early 1630’s. A decade and a half later, he was a free man again with some land, three young sons and a fear that something would happen to him., leaving his children impoverished orphans. Thomas’s wife was evidently dead. In 1648, Allen wrote his will, which set out his fears. It tells how Allen, an outspoken Protestant, had fallen foul with a group of Catholic Irishmen and believed they planned to murder him. It pointed the finger at the Irishman responsible if he was killed and called on his friends to look after his two younger sons if he was murdered, as “I would not have them sold for slaves.’

Four months later, Thomas Allen was indeed murdered but not by Irishmen. His body was found on the seashore at Point Lookout, St Michaels, one early August morning in 1648. There were the entry marks of three arrows in his body and he had been scalped. His two youngest sons, Thomas and Robert, were missing.

The boys had been kidnapped by the Patuxent tribe, who had slain their father. News came that they could be ransomed. The tribe wanted 900 pounds of tobacco for his younger brother Robert. A court of burgesses was convened and proceeded to order an audit of the dead man’s estate. There wasn’t much. Thomas Allen evidently didn’t own land of any value, and the terms of his indentured servant was nearly up. After sixteen years in the colony, his only assets of any worth were a small boat, a gun and fifteen pigs. After court costs were paid and Allen’s debts discharged, there wouldn’t be enough for the ransom. The worthy burgesses announced that the county wouldn’t foot the bill. But they had a solution. If someone would pay the ransom, they would order that the boys be bound out to the ransomer as indentured servants till there were twenty-one- in their dead father’s words, they would be ‘sold for slaves.’

Happily, the dead man had genuinely good friends. Two of the them paid the ransom and took the boys- but as sons not servants. As one declared when he committed himself to paying the 900 pounds of tobacco, it was done ‘without any consideration of servitude or any other consideration whatsoever but his free love and affection.’

Thomas Allen of the Province of Maryland, 1633
An Account of His Murder and His Childrens' Kidnapping


Editors: Words enclosed in [brackets] are those of the editors and not part of the original record.

Thomas Allen, Sr. was apparently the same Thomas Allen who probably arrived on The Ark and the Dove in 1633/4. According to Skordas, one Thomas Allen was transported to Maryland in 1633 (1:121); and one Thomas Allen was transported in 1633 as a servant (ABH:98), these two possibly having been the same. One Thomas Allen was gifted 50 acres by Leonard Calvert in 1640 (1:71-2); and one Thomas Allen petitioned in 1640 to confirm his title to land granted by Capt. William Clayborne (1:92-3). Thomas Allen, Jr., and William Allen, were sons of Thomas Allen, Sr., who was deceased by 1656 (Q:115). No record is found in either this source or Gibb of an early Robert Allen, and that he was deceased by 1656 is documented by the sale by his brothers of their father's land (below).

Court and Testamentary Business, Province of Maryland, 1648. Liber A, pp. 170-4.

In the name of god Amen. I Thomas Allen in the prouince of Mary-Land Plantr for many good causes me thereto moueing. being well in body, & in prfect health & memory thanks be to god for it, & praysed be his holy name.

I doe make my last will & testamt
ffirst I bequeath my Soule to god tht gaue it, trusting only in the meritts of Jesus Christ my Sweet Sauiour. Secondly I bequeath my Body to the grownd, whence it shall please Allmighty god to call it, trusting in a ioyfull & hopefull resur rection by Jesus Christ. Thirdly I doe make my sonne Thomas Allen, full & whole Exequutor of all my wordly goods: Thus far tht he doth admister uppon all tht is mine, for the use of him selfe, & his Brothers William Allen, & Robert Allen, & lett it bee, more or lesse. & I doe giue them share & share like. And if eyther of them should dye; Lett the other Two take all, Or if it please god, tht Two dye; Then the longest liuer take all. And because they are yowng, & tender of age I doe appoynt my louing ffreinds John Hatch (or in his absence Willm Marshall) & Rich: Banks to bee Ouer seers of this my last will & Testamt And if it should soe please Allmigty god tht I should dye this summer, or this yeare: That my Man Conquerour may stay, & worke in the Crop. And tht an Inuentory of all tht is mine, may be taken & secured by the OurSeers Jno Hatch & Rich: Banks, to pay my debts, & the remayner for the good of my children according to their best discretion. Now for the disposall of my children I would not haue them to liue wth any Papist. ffor my Eldest sonne Thomas, if hee please to liue wth eyther of the Ouerseers of this will hee may during his pleasure. I know he will yerne his uictualls & cloaths: if not lett him take his course. And for the other Two I would not haue them sold for slaues, or Morter-Boyes, but according to their best discretion I meane, of my uery louing ffreinds John Hatch & Rich: Banks. I haue an old freind att Accomack called James Bruse, I could wish tht he had my sonne Robert, if he haue none of his owne & tht he would use him well, & nott sett him to the Mortar. or eyther Vrmstrong ffoster. Phillip Conner of the Ile of Kent, did desyre once to haue my Sonne William, as his child, & soe he would use him. & I told him, if it pleased god to take me to his mercy I would leaue him, to him, Soe I desyre you my freinds to use yor discretion in it. And for yor paines & labor in it, you may pay yor selfes, out of this estate. But I beseech you my freinds, doe yor best for my children. And soe I conclude desyring god to bring us to (in his good time) euer lasting glory & mercy in Jesus Christ our Sauiour. Now to him be thanks both now & euermore. Amen.

The words him, his, & god was enterlyned before the Signing & Setting to of my hand. Now in wittnes of the truth I haue sett my hand this Twenty third day of Aprill. An: Do: 1648
Signd Thomas Allen.

On the backside of the will

I desyre that & if I should sodenly dye, & the cause how, should not be directly knowne how, or where, or when. That there bee speedy Enquiry made, how & where, & what was the cause. And if it be not directly fownd tht then I would have Nick: & Marks att Pyney-neck, Irish-men, questioned as suspitious persons: for reasons to mee best knowne. This more I desyre of you my freinds John Hatch, & Richard Banks, & soe likewise of you my Sonnes Thomas, William, & Robert Allen. This is my desyre. Wittnes my hand this Twenty third of Aprill Ano Dni 1648. Signd Thomas Allen.
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. IV, pp. 403-4)

Editors: This will is also abstracted in the Maryland Calendar of Wills,
Volume I, pp. 1-13

Thomas Allen was apparently killed by Indians, not Irishmen, and at least two of his sons, Robert and Thomas, kidnapped.

August. 8 [1648]. Court and Testamentary Business, Province of Maryland, 1648. Liber A, pp. 170-1.

Warrant to George Manners to Impannell a Jury of 12 ffreemen to make Enquiry of the death of Tho: Allen fownd dead, uppon the sands by Poynt Looke out, in St Michaells mannor in the pro: of Mary-Land & to make a true returne thereof, into the Registers office, wth all possible conueniency.

Warrt returned in writing as followeth.

August. 9 A Jury impanneld uppon the dead Corps of Tho: Allen untimely deceased, & Verdict thereon deliuered as followeth.

I Edward Cottom, being foreman of the Jury, giue Verdict for the whole as followeth That the sd Tho: Allen was shott under the right shoulder, & hath three holes, but whether wth shott or Arrowes they know not. His Corps is soe eat & consumed.

And likewise tht a great peice of his scull is broken & taken away; & the skin of his scull is flayed of, quite rownd his head.
Edward Cottam John Lewger John Harwood
Willm Edwin Edw: Hull Lewis ffreeman
Odoan James Humphrey Howell Rich: Willan
Angel Simpson John Cage George Dolte
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. IV, pp. 403-4)

August 11. Whereas this day Jno Hatch, Rich: Banks, & Willm Marshall, ouerseers of the last will & testamt of Tho: Allen deceased, haue brought into the Registers office, the sayd last will & testamt of the sd Tho: Allen. And whereas there is noe prnt power to graunt lres of admistraon. It is therfore Ordered by the Gour tht the sd Mr Hatch Rich: Banks, & Willm Marshall shall receiue & collect the estate, wch otherwise would fall to ruine, & cause it to be appraysed by the oaths of Walter Beane, Walter Waterlin, & Robert Smith, & bring into the Registers office, a true & prfect Inuentory of the estate, wth the appraysmt thereof, wthin Ten days. And the allowance or Accompt thereof, whensoeur they shall be thereunto called, by the Judge of Testamentary Causes, in this prouince.
Copie eiusd. to Jno Hatch.

Jno Hatch. Rich: Banks, & Willm Marshall sworne by the Gour according to the Tenure of the order abouesd

Know all men by these prnts tht wee Jo: Hatch, Rich: Banks & Willm Marshall doe hereby firmely bind orselues. or heyres, & assignes to pay, or cause to be payd, unto the sd Cecill Baltemore Propr of this pro: his heyres or assignes the full summe, or quanty of Ten Thowsand pownd weight of good & marchble leafe Tob: & cask.

The Condicon of this obligaon is such, tht if the wthin bownd Jno Hatch, Rich: Banks, & Willm Marshall shall giue a just, true, & faythfull accompt of the estate of Tho: Allen deceased whensoeur they shall be thereunto called by the Judge of Testa mentary causes of this pro: tht then this prnt obligaon to be uoyd, or ells to stand in full force. Wittnes Or hands Sig. John Hatch
Recognez Coram Gour Rich: Banks
Willm Marshall

August. 17th Walter Beane sworne by the Govr
Walter Waterlin & Robert Smith sworne by George Saugheir
(being authorized thereunto by writt from the Govr)
to make a true apprasmt of all such goods, as shall be brought unto them by Jno Hatch, Rich: Banks, & Wm Marshall, belonging to Tho: Allen late deceased.

August. 18th A True Inuentory of the Estate of Tho: Allen deceased, & appraysed by the oaths of Walter Beane, Robert Smith, & Walter Waterlin

18th Aug. 1648.

Impr One Man seruant hauing 4 months to serue wth 8 the Crop of Tob: 1

It. one small fether bed Wth a canuise ticking, one feather pillow

one white Rug, one deare skin wth feathers in it 0300

Two old weeding hooes, Two old hilling hooes

one old Dutch Spade One little old frying pan,

One hand- 6 Saw, one drawing knife

one ades, one Auger, one froe, 01 0

one iron Pestle, 300 6d nailes one old narrow axe

One iron pott, & one old Brasse Kettle 0100

Two single Ankers, one dowble anker & a payle 0030

One powdring Tub, one Table, on Tray, & 2 old boules 0120

One Long gun & shott-bagge 0260

one old chest, & a matt 0030

Three pecks of Salt 0020

Two Sowes & 13 piggs 0550

Ten henns & 3 cocks 0070

One ffeather-bed wth an old ticking 0150

one other feather bed, one feather

boulster, one feather pillow &

curtaines belonging to it 0500

Six pewter dishes, one pewter Cup,

one pewter Salt, one pewter pinte

pott, a quart pott, an old chamber 0120

1 1 pewter spoones, one old poringer,

an old peice of a cup One iron-pott,

& a little brasse Kettle 0100

one brasse Kettle, one payre of Tones,

one brasse candlestick, & a parcell of

old iron One shirt, & one Apron 0100

3 yards & 3 quarters of broad cloath 0140

one Smoothing-iron 0015

one Neck-cloath, one old p Breaches &

a parcell of line 0060

one payre Shott-molds, & pr Tob: Towngs 0018

3 Bookes 0060

one Small gun 0100

one chest & a Box 0080

13 deare Skins 0100

1648.one earthen pott 0010

His marke & 7 barrells Corne

one Small Boate 0300l


3 Nouembr 1648 Appraysed by Robert Kedger and Wm. Smoote

August. 22th Leiut Rich: Banks hauing appreheaded 5 Patuxent Indians, uppon suspition of ffelony, & bringing them afore the Gouernor to answere the same. The Gour committed them to the Sheriufe to be kept in safe custody, untill conuenient time for their tryall.
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. IV, pp. 403-4)

Because Thomas' children were missing, and a ransom demanded by the Indians it was necessary for the court to determine how to handle the expense of the ransom. The final determination was that they would be indentured to whom so ever ransomed them; i.e., they would be placed in servitude to white men instead of Indians:

Court and Testamentary Business, 1649—50, Liber A.

Vppon the Mocon of John Hatch one of the Administrators of Tho: Allen deceased who pressed the passing of an Accompt touching the Administracon But some question being made by some of the Credditors whether the charge of redeeming Allens Children from the Indians ought to bee allowed It is therevppon Ordered that the passing of the said Accompt bee respited till the next Assembly And that all pceedings against the said Estate for any debts not already adjudged bee for borne till then
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. I, p. 540)

Assembly Proceedings, April 1650, Liber A

1 7 An Order concerning the charge of redeeming the two Children of Thomas Allen deceased.

Vppon the Reference from the Provinciall Court concerning the charge of redeeming Thomas Allens two Children from the Indians whether to bee allowed in the Administrators or Overseers Accompt or not, the Testators estate not being sufficient as is alleadged to defray that charge and to pay all due debts, and the publick charge this yeare being like to bee very great and burthensome It is thought fitt and soe ordered by this prsent Generall Assembly That the said two children shall serve any of the said Administrators or Overseers or any other Inhabitant or Inhabitants of this Province till they attaine to theire severall ages of 21ty yeares As the Provinciall Court shall thinke fitt, Such Inhabitant or Inhabitants bearing or paying the said charg of theire Redempcon being 1 500l of Tob: & Caske viz: for the eldest 900. and for the yongest 600 And at the expiracon of theire time of service paying to each of them respectively a Cowe and a Cowe Calfe, 3 barrells of Corne and necessary clothing, But in case any of the said Administrators or overseers on other Inhabitants aforesaid (to bee approved of by the Provinciall Count) that will beare or pay the said charg of redempcon in manner aforesaid respectively, shalbe willing to take them or either of them bound for lesser time alloweing them as aforesaid, or lett them goe free. Hee that will deale most favourably and charitably with the said children or either of them herein and acquaint the said Court therewith before they shalbe bound to any other shalbe first prferred. And this Assembly doth further declare that they thinke fitt that Georg Manners be allowed 200 l of Tob: and Caske for his Corroners ffee and other paynes menconed in the Administrators Accompt.

Ordered Vt Supa. Assented Vt Supa.
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. I, p. 297)

Their father, however, was apparently well justified in placing his trust in his friends:

Court and Testamentary Business, Province of Maryland, Liber A, 1649-50

28 dec [1649] Robert Allen sonne of Tho: Allen dec. his marke for Cattell and Hoggs Viz: both Eares slitt and the vndersides cropt offe

27 dec. [1649] 27 May 1650. According to the liberty and direccon of an order made the last Assembly concerning the charge of redeeming the children of Tho: Allen deceased Willm Marshall this day doth vndertake at the next Cropp to pay the 600 l of Tob: and Caske for redempcon of Robert Allen the yonger of the said two Children, and hath deposited a Bill of 300' of Tob: and Caske payable the tenth of November next to him the said Willm Marshall from Walter Waterling in Mr Secretaries hands, in part of paymt And the said Child to bee at liberty to live with him the said Marshall or any other whom the said Child shall best like of without any Tye or restraint of servitude Witnes his hand
T'estor Tho: Hatton W x Marshall
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. 10, 1649-50, p. 51)

Court and Testamentary Business, Province of Maryland, 1649-50, Liber A, p. 354,

15th Sept 1650 Lt Richard Bancks freely ingageth himself to satisfy the 900 l of Tob: and Caske for the redempcon of Thomas the sonne of Thomas Allen deceased according to the order of Assembly for that purpose without any consideracon of servitude or any other consideracon whatsoever but his free love and affecconwitnes his hand the day and yeare aboue said
Richard Banckes
Testet Tho: Hatton Barnaby Jackson
(Archives of Maryland, Vol. 10, 1649-50, p. 31)

No further record has been found of an early Robert Allen, and that he was deceased by 1656 is documented by the sale by his brothers of their father's land.

Provincial Court Proceedings, 1658, Liber PCR, f. 81
Re Estate of Allen

This 13th of Decembr 1656.

Wee the Ouerseers of the Estate of Thomas Allen Deceased, the consent of Thomas & Willm Allen the Sonnes & Heyres of the aforesd Thomas Allen, haue Sold unto Henry Potter all tht parcell of Land, wch was formerly Thomas Allens the elder, Lying in St Michaels hundd in the Province of Maryland. And further Wee the sd Thomas & Willm Allen doe sell & make ouer all Our Rights, Tytle & interest of all tht Land, Plantaon, howsing whatsoeuer belonging unto or ffather Thomas Allen for euer, unto the sd Henry Potter, his heyres, Exequutors, & Admistrators foreuer. And is for a Certaine summe of Tob, wch wee the sayd Thomas Allen, & Willm Allen haue the greatest part in hand receiued, And for the true performance wee haue hereunto sett Our hands.
Tho: T Allen Willm M Allen
Delivered in the pence of Vs
John Hatch Richard Banks Willm A Marshall

January 28th 1657.

I doe acknowledge to haue receaued of Henry Potter, the summe of Two Thousand, Two hundred Thirty fiue pownds of Tob. & Cask in full satisfaction for tht parcell of Land, belonging to me Thomas Allen, & Willm Allen my Brother, Lying & being in St Michaels hundd otherwise called the Lower end of the Towne, ffor wch summe of Tob. I doe quite all claimes & interests, rights & tytles whatsoeue in the same about the sayd Land. In wittnes whereof I haue hereunto sett my hand the day aboue dated.
Thomas T Allen
In the pence of R Wiseman Tho. Wynne
(Archives of Maryland, 41:122, Provincial Court Proceedings, 1658)

History of Thomas Allen

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